5 Things to Understand About VPN Speed

The speed of a VPN is an important thing to consider, and may also be a determining factor for many people when deciding whether they should use a VPN at all. Speed really does matter when it comes to the Internet. Even if a VPN provides improved online security and can help get around blocked content, if the service is slow, the overall experience will be far from ideal.

In this article, I will look at several factors that can influence the speed of a VPN, and how they can be mitigated.

1) The VPN Server Location

Typically, establishing a connection with a VPN server closer to your location will result in better speed. This is because the complexity of Internet traffic goes up as the distance between you and the VPN server increases. The more complex the traffic, and the greater the distance data has to travel, the slower the VPN speed.

If you don’t have a good reason for connecting to a particular VPN location, picking the one closest to you is the best option. For example, if you live in Texas and want to log into a US VPN server, use one in Houston or Dallas instead of one in New York. Similarly, if you’re located in China and need a US VPN server, find one that is available on the West Coast over one somewhere in the east.

2) The VPN Protocols

Different protocols can be used to establish a VPN connection. Some of the more popular ones include OpenVPN (over UDP or TCP), SSTP, PPTP and L2TP/IPSec. Everything else being equal, each protocol can result in a significantly different VPN speed. For example, using OpenVPN over UDP typically results in a faster connection than OpenVPN over TCP.

There are no hard set rules as to which protocol will give you the best speed. OpenVPN over UDP is a good default to try. If you find yourself having issues, try switching to a different protocol to see if your VPN speed improves.

3) Encryption Level

Stronger encryption is often more complex and can, as a result, slow down a VPN. A 128-bit encryption will in most cases lead to a faster connection than a 256-bit one.

On the downside, lowering encryption strength will make the VPN connection less secure and the transmitted data more vulnerable. So, you can try playing around with the encryption level, but unless you see significant speed improvements with weaker encryption, it is best to stick to the stronger versions.

4) VPN Server Load and Bandwidth

How powerful the VPN server is will have a significant impact on the speed. Overloaded servers with a bandwidth that cannot keep up with the demand will result in a much slower experience.

The client software you use to connect to a VPN service will usually tell you how many IP addresses and how much bandwidth a server has. The higher those numbers, the more powerful the server. Those same clients sometimes even show real-time usage. If the server you’re connected to is overloaded, switching to a different one is usually as simple as a couple of mouse clicks.

5) Your Network Setup

Whether your device is on a wired network and physically connected to a router or using WiFi can affect VPN speed. This distinction is especially relevant if you have a fast connection to the outside world. Because a wired connection is often quicker than WiFi, the latter can be a limiting factor. You can try plugging your computer directly into the router to see if there is a speed improvement.

Ultimately, not all VPN providers are created equal. Even under ideal conditions, the speed and reliability they offer may be drastically different. If you have tried implementing several of the methods mentioned in this article but are still not seeing speed improvements, it may be time to consider switching VPN providers.

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God Is Speaking Via The Internet and Bringing the World to an End

The Internet is the most amazing piece of modern technology and yet it came about in a simple fashion. During the Second World War the inventive brains worked to develop a decoding devise so that the enemy’s plans could be deciphered. This was not the first as many came before it. After the war employment turned to industry and technology and machines came into their own, along with calculators and such.

The term ‘computer’ was first recorded in 1613 to describe a human. He is possibly the trigger for thoughts that a machine could be developed to do what he did. Over the next 400 years’ various types of machines slowly came into play.

One can see by the series of events that the production of the communication device we now take for granted was part of a plan. As with any invention or progress it doesn’t happen overnight and other things have to also come into play.

Along with the steps required to bring about the Internet others were developed to allow it. Some worked on electrical components, others on the telephone and wireless, still others on construction of cabinets to house them, and finally the technology behind televised images added to the mix.

Along with these innovations came other ideas. How to store information led to the development of memory while RAM allowed graphics and images. Companies started that brought the computer from the massive ‘colossus’ of the British decoding machine to that of the desk top in 1964 by Olivetti.

After that the computer was ready to become a household name. The first micro-processor was developed by Intel in 1971. That was quickly followed by the first micro-computer in 1973. Each of these machines came from people of different nationalities and situations, including the last from a Vietnamese-French engineer in partnership with a Frenchman.

The first personal computer turned up in 1975 and the first portable one, developed by IBM, later the same year. The first Apple computer arrived on the market in 1976.

With security a primary concern, the military of many countries worked on ways of passing information secretly via phone lines and then other devices. What they required was wireless transfer that could be coded and computers that could talk to each other without interference from outside influences.

In 1976 a couple of researchers named Kahn and Cerf published a blueprint of their idea of wireless transmission of information. Then it started working when a computer passed typed information and sent it to a source for transmission as radio signals. Picked up by an antenna they were then passed to another computer where it could be read.

The Internet was born and it is just 41 years old. All that was required after that was to use the phone technology to marry the two into the convenience of today’s communication system.

Only the Spirit of the Universe, the real God, could do this by putting ideas into the minds of those who worked over four centuries and many countries to do it. My reincarnation and link to the Spirit has allowed insight into the plan that is so detailed in Old Testament prophecies. In there is a promise that at the end of the day God’s mountain will appear and from it the world will hear and understand all things.

“In the last days the mountain of the house of God will appear in the top of the mountains and all people will flow unto it.” Micah 4:1.

Few will dispute the fact that we have reached that time and the Internet is the tallest mountain in the world. It is the place of teaching and the depository of history from virtually man’s arrival on earth. Bit by bit over the last few millennia progress has taken us from hunter-gatherers into people who can talk to others anywhere in the world instantly.

It has also drawn interest from all who are flowing to it with their mobile phones, tablets, computers, and other devices. The wars fought over have given us incentive to do things better, which explains why they happened. Other things like disease, famine, and natural tragedies have all added to the development of our current systems.

God is talking to the world through these words and others listened to by the billions who can now tune into them. Terrorists and those who intend to destroy everything are part of the framework to deliver the final blow. We don’t know when it will happen but like the Internet the promise will come true.

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Internet Protocol Version Four

Internet Protocol:- Communication between hosts can happen only if they can identify each other on the network. In a single collision domain (where every packet sent on the segment by one host is heard by every other host) hosts can communicate directly via MAC address.MAC address is a factory coded 48-bits hardware address which can also uniquely identify a host. But if a host wants to communicate with a remote host, i.e. not in the same segment or logically not connected, then some means of addressing is required to identify the remote host uniquely. A logical address is given to all hosts connected to the Internet and this logical address is called Internet Protocol Address.

The network layer is responsible for carrying data from one host to another. It provides means to allocate logical addresses to hosts, and identify them uniquely using the same. Network layer takes data units from Transport Layer and cuts them in to smaller unit called Data Packet.

Network layer defines the data path, the packets should follow to reach the destination. Routers work on this layer and provides mechanism to route data to its destination. A majority of the internet uses a protocol suite called the Internet Protocol Suite also known as the TCP/IP protocol suite. This suite is a combination of protocols which encompasses a number of different protocols for different purpose and need. Because the two major protocols in this suites are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol), this is commonly termed as TCP/IP Protocol suite. This protocol suite has its own reference model which it follows over the internet. In contrast with the OSI model, this model of protocols contains less layers.

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol is one of the major protocols in the TCP/IP protocols suite. This protocol works at the network layer of the OSI model and at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. Thus this protocol has the responsibility of identifying hosts based upon their logical addresses and to route data among them over the underlying network.

IP provides a mechanism to uniquely identify hosts by an IP scheme. IP uses best effort delivery, i.e. it does not guarantee that packets would be delivered to the destined host, but it will do its best to reach the destination. Internet Protocol version 4 uses 32-bit logical address.

Internet Protocol being a layer-3 protocol (OSI) takes data Segments from layer-4 (Transport) and divides it into packets. IP packet encapsulates data unit received from above layer and add to its own header information.

The encapsulated data is referred to as IP Payload. IP header contains all the necessary information to deliver the packet at the other end.

IP header includes many relevant information including Version Number, which, in this context, is 4. Other details are as follows:
• Version: Version no. of Internet Protocol used (e.g. IPv4).
• IHL: Internet Header Length; Length of entire IP header.
• DSCP: Differentiated Services Code Point; this is Type of Service.
• ECN: Explicit Congestion Notification; It carries information about the congestion seen in the route.
• Total Length: Length of entire IP Packet (including IP header and IP Payload).
• Identification: If IP packet is fragmented during the transmission, all the fragments contain same identification number. to identify original IP packet they belong to.
• Flags: As required by the network resources, if IP Packet is too large to handle, these ‘flags’ tells if they can be fragmented or not. In this 3-bit flag, the MSB is always set to ’0′.
• Fragment Offset: This offset tells the exact position of the fragment in the original IP Packet.
• Time to Live: To avoid looping in the network, every packet is sent with some TTL value set, which tells the network how many routers (hops) this packet can cross. At each hop, its value is decremented by one and when the value reaches zero, the packet is discarded.
• Protocol: Tells the Network layer at the destination host, to which Protocol this packet belongs to, i.e. the next level Protocol. For example protocol number of ICMP is 1, TCP is 6 and UDP is 17.
• Header Checksum: This field is used to keep checksum value of entire header which is then used to check if the packet is received error-free.
• Source Address: 32-bit address of the Sender (or source) of the packet.
• Destination Address: 32-bit address of the Receiver (or destination) of the packet.
• Options: This is optional field, which is used if the value of IHL is greater than 5. These options may contain values for options such as Security, Record Route, Time Stamp, etc.

Internet Protocol hierarchy contains several classes of IP to be used efficiently in various situations as per the requirement of hosts per network. Broadly, the IPv4 system is divided into five classes of IP Addresses. All the five classes are identified by the first octet of IP.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is responsible for assigning IP.

The first octet referred here is the left most of all. The octets numbered as follows depicting dotted decimal notation of IP:

The number of networks and the number of hosts per class can be derived by this formula:

When calculating hosts’ IP, 2 IP are decreased because they cannot be assigned to hosts, i.e. the first IP of a network is network number and the last IP is reserved for Broadcast IP.

Class A Address

The first bit of the first octet is always set to 0 (zero). Thus the first octet ranges from 1 – 127, i.e.

Class A addresses only include IP starting from 1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x only. The IP range 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback IP addresses.

The default subnet mask for Class A IP address is 255.0.0.0 which implies that Class A addressing can have 126 networks (27-2) and 16777214 hosts (224-2).

Class A IP address format is thus: 0NNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class B Address

An IP address which belongs to class B has the first two bits in the first octet set to 10, i.e.

Class B IP range from 128.0.x.x to 191.255.x.x. The default subnet mask for Class B is 255.255.x.x.

Class B has 16384 (214) Network addresses and 65534 (216-2) Host addresses.

Class B IP format is: 10NNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class C Address

The first octet of Class C IP address has its first 3 bits set to 110, that is:

Class C IP range from 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. The default subnet mask for Class C is 255.255.255.x.

Class C gives 2097152 (221) Network addresses and 254 (28-2) Host addresses.

Class C IP address format is: 110NNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH

Class D Address

Very first four bits of the first octet in Class D IP addresses are set to 1110, giving a range of:

Class D has IP rage from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Class D is reserved for Multicasting. In multicasting data is not destined for a particular host, that is why there is no need to extract host address from the IP address, and Class D does not have any subnet mask.

Class E Address

This IP Class is reserved for experimental purposes only for R&D or Study. IP addresses in this class ranges from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254. Like Class D, this class too is not equipped with any subnet mask.

Each IP class is equipped with its own default subnet mask which bounds that IP class to have prefixed number of Networks and prefixed number of Hosts per network. Classful IP does not provide any flexibility of having less number of Hosts per Network or more Networks per IP Class.

CIDR or Classless Inter Domain Routing provides the flexibility of borrowing bits of Host part of the IP and using them as Network in Network, called Subnet. By using subnetting, one single Class A IP address can be used to have smaller sub-networks which provides better network management capabilities.

Class A Subnets

In Class A, only the first octet is used as Network identifier and rest of three octets are used to be assigned to Hosts (i.e. 16777214 Hosts per Network). To make more subnet in Class A, bits from Host part are borrowed and the subnet mask is changed accordingly.

For example, if one MSB (Most Significant Bit) is borrowed from host bits of second octet and added to Network address, it creates two Subnets (21=2) with (223-2) 8388606 Hosts per Subnet.

The Subnet mask is changed accordingly to reflect subnetting. Given below is a list of all possible combination of Class A subnets:

In case of subnetting too, the very first and last IP of every subnet is used for Subnet Number and Subnet Broadcast IP respectively. Because these two IP addresses cannot be assigned to hosts, sub-netting cannot be implemented by using more than 30 bits as Network Bits, which provides less than two hosts per subnet.

Class B Subnets

By default, using Classful Networking, 14 bits are used as Network bits providing (214) 16384 Networks and (216-2) 65534 Hosts. Class B IP Addresses can be subnetted the same way as Class A addresses, by borrowing bits from Host bits. Below is given all possible combination of Class B subnetting:

Class C Subnets

Class C IP addresses are normally assigned to a very small size network because it can only have 254 hosts in a network. Given below is a list of all possible combination of subnetted Class B IP address:

Internet Service Providers may face a situation where they need to allocate IP subnets of different sizes as per the requirement of customer. One customer may ask Class C subnet of 3 IP addresses and another may ask for 10 IPs. For an ISP, it is not feasible to divide the IP addresses into fixed size subnets, rather he may want to subnet the subnets in such a way which results in minimum wastage of IP addresses.

For example, an administrator have 192.168.1.0/24 network. The suffix /24 (pronounced as “slash 24″) tells the number of bits used for network address. In this example, the administrator has three different departments with different number of hosts. Sales department has 100 computers, Purchase department has 50 computers, Accounts has 25 computers and Management has 5 computers. In CIDR, the subnets are of fixed size. Using the same methodology the administrator cannot fulfill all the requirements of the network.

The following procedure shows how VLSM can be used in order to allocate department-wise IP addresses as mentioned in the example.

Step – 1

Make a list of Subnets possible.

Step – 2

Sort the requirements of IPs in descending order (Highest to Lowest).
• Sales 100
• Purchase 50
• Accounts 25
• Management 5

Step – 3

Allocate the highest range of IPs to the highest requirement, so let’s assign 192.168.1.0 /25 (255.255.255.128) to the Sales department. This IP subnet with Network number 192.168.1.0 has 126 valid Host IP which satisfy the requirement of the Sales department. The subnet mask used for this subnet has 10000000 as the last octet.

Step – 4

Allocate the next highest range, so let’s assign 192.168.1.128 /26 (255.255.255.192) to the Purchase department. This IP subnet with Network number 192.168.1.128 has 62 valid Host IP Addresses which can be easily assigned to all the PCs of the Purchase department. The subnet mask used has 11000000 in the last octet.

Step – 5

Allocate the next highest range, i.e. Accounts. The requirement of 25 IPs can be fulfilled with 192.168.1.192 /27 (255.255.255.224) IP subnet, which contains 30 valid host IPs. The network number of Accounts department will be 192.168.1.192. The last octet of subnet mask is 11100000.

Step – 6

Allocate the next highest range to Management. The Management department contains only 5 computers. The subnet 192.168.1.224 /29 with the Mask 255.255.255.248 has exactly 6 valid host IP. So this can be assigned to Management. The last octet of the subnet mask will contain 11111000.

By using VLSM, the administrator can subnet the IP subnet in such a way that least number of IP are wasted. Even after assigning IPs to every department, the administrator, in this example, is still left with plenty of IP which was not possible if he has used CIDR.

There are a few reserved IPv4 address spaces which cannot be used on the internet. These addresses serve special purpose and cannot be routed outside the Local Area Network.

Private IP

Every class of IP, (A, B & C) has some addresses reserved as Private IP addresses. These IPs can be used within a network, campus, company and are private to it. These addresses cannot be routed on the Internet, so packets containing these private addresses are dropped by the Routers.

In order to communicate with the outside world, these IP addresses must have to be translated to some public IP using NAT process, or Web Proxy server can be used.

The sole purpose to create a separate range of private addresses is to control assignment of already-limited IPv4 address pool. By using a private address range within LAN, the requirement of IPv4 addresses has globally decreased significantly. It has also helped delaying the IPv4 address exhaustion.

IP class, while using private address range, can be chosen as per the size and requirement of the organization. Larger organizations may choose class A private IP address range where smaller organizations may opt for class C. These IP addresses can be further sub-netted and assigned to departments within an organization.

Loopback IP

The IP range 127.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255 is reserved for loopback, i.e. a Host’s self-address, also known as localhost address. This loopback IP is managed entirely by and within the operating system. Loopback addresses, enable the Server and Client processes on a single system to communicate with each other. When a process creates a packet with destination address as loopback address, the operating system loops it back to itself without having any interference of NIC.

Data sent on loopback is forwarded by the operating system to a virtual network interface within operating system. This address is mostly used for testing purposes like client-server architecture on a single machine. Other than that, if a host machine can successfully ping 127.0.0.1 or any IP from loopback range, implies that the TCP/IP software stack on the machine is successfully loaded and working.

Link-local Addresses

In case a host is not able to acquire an IP from the DHCP server and it has not been assigned any IP manually, the host can assign itself an IP address from a range of reserved Link-local addresses. Link local address ranges from 169.254.0.0 — 169.254.255.255.

Assume a network segment where all systems are configured to acquire IP from a DHCP server connected to the same network segment. If the DHCP server is not available, no host on the segment will be able to communicate to any other. Windows (98 or later), and Mac OS (8.0 or later) supports this functionality of self-configuration of Link-local IP. In absence of DHCP server, every host machine randomly chooses an IP from the above mentioned range and then checks to ascertain by means of ARP, if some other host also has not configured itself with the same IP. Once all hosts are using link local addresses of same range, they can communicate with each other.

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The Significance of Pure Air Inside Your Home

Have you ever climbed up mountains? If so, what do you do when you reach the top? Most people open their arms, close their eyes, and take a deep breath. That is the special thing about clean and fresh air. You feel like taking a pause and inhaling fresh air. Over the past year, we have faced several waves of coronavirus. These days, we have been warned about another wave of this virus. Therefore, the importance of clean air has been increasing day by day. In this article, we are going to find out why air quality is important when it comes to our indoor environment.

The impact of pollution on your indoor air

No matter where you go, you will have to face the consequences of poor quality. Even if you are alone in your home, you will still be prone to polluted air. Every year, more than 1 million people lose their life because of air pollution.

According to some reports, India is among the top 10 countries in the world with the worst air quality. The effect of polluted air is more evident as people spend over 90% of their time inside their homes. Another research study found that residents are at a greater risk of covid-19.

As a matter of fact, indoor air pollution has become an international concern. We can say that pollution levels inside and in closed spaces are up to five times higher. Since most pollutants are not visible to the naked eye, you may not be able to aware of the dangers of dirty air.

Indoor air pollutants may be generated by common household items, such as cleaning agents, cooking fuel, furniture polish, pet dander, and paint. Apart from this, domestic appliances such as refrigerators and heaters may also be the common source.

Since homes are not airtight, air pollutants can easily get in. For example, smog, smoke, mold spores, and dust can get into your house through your windows or doors. Air conditioners can be used to cool down your rooms. But the downside is that they can also boost the movement of pollutants across your house.

What can you do to purify your indoor air?

Basically, air purifiers are simple devices that receive dirty air and put it out after passing it through powerful filters. Nowadays, you can choose from hundreds of air purification units available in the market. They are based on a wide range of technologies. They are available in different sizes to cover rooms of different sizes.

Nowadays, most types of air purifiers depend on HEPA technology. Initially, this technology was introduced in the 40s in order to capture pollutants from the air. Although these filters have been used for the filtration of particulate matter, they may not be that effective when it comes to eliminating volatile organic compounds.

Therefore, if you are worried about your health, we suggest that you invest in a type of device that comes with a HEPA filter. With these units, filtering your indoor air will be a piece of cake. Therefore, you can count on these devices to and ensure clean air inside your house.

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Why Worry About Board Up Services?

Your home or business has been damaged by fire, flooding, or some other natural disaster. There are definitely areas that are exposed, and you’re waiting on your insurance to get started with the restoration process. What do you need to do while you’re waiting to get an answer about everything?

Emergency board up services are something that you may want to consider for the “in between” time. Why would you go through the time and money to get these additional services before you even start the restoration process? Here are some of the benefits of it.

Prevent Theft

One reason to consider board up services is because you don’t want robbers and thieves thinking that they have an easy target to go after. If you leave parts of your home or business open and vulnerable, it’s going to be simple for those people to waltz in there and take whatever they want that is still intact after your disaster. Boarding up your doors and windows, along with any gaps in the walls, can deter potential thieves and keep whatever is left at your property as safe as possible.

Prevent Rain, Snow, and Wind from Damaging the Property Further

All year long, rain and snowstorms can be a bit of an issue if your home or business is left open to the elements. In those cases, it’s going to be in your best interest to connect with emergency board up services as soon as you can. The last thing you need is for your restoration company to get into your home or business to find additional water, or to have to dig out several inches of snow before they start working. It can also prevent wind from going through your home or business, which also prevents additional damage from occurring during that waiting period.

Stop Animals from Getting Inside

Lastly, board up services can easily prevent animals from coming into your home or business. Many animal species are incredibly smart and opportunistic, and they may see your currently empty building as a great place for them to set up a den or shelter. But, if your home or business is boarded up, they will have fewer ways to get inside. Smaller animals may still find nooks and crannies where they can get in, so you’ll need to keep an eye out for them when you move back in. But, at least squirrels and mice are easier and safer to deal with than say, a raccoon, bear, or deer.

If you get professionals to board up your property, you can rest easy and know your home or business is safe, and that’s the bottom line. Many companies that sort out restoration services will also do everything that they can in order to board up and protect your home or business until they can start the restoration process. You just need to get in touch with them and let them know what sort of help you’ll need to take care of everything related to your home or business

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